Ans. The strictly modern short story had its birth with Poe and Hawthorne in America and Gautier and Merimee in France. Since that early days, a host of short-story writers have sprung up in America and in England, France, Russia, and other countries of Europe. Modern short story
Chief among these are Stevenson and Kipling in England; Merimee, Maupassant, Daudet, Coppee, Anatole, Balzac in Franc Pushkin and Tolstoy in Russia; and Bjornson in Norway, Convoluted from the ancient tales.
When the short story emerged as a genre in the 19th century, it was seen as something totally new and modem Popular and literary magazines began increasingly to publish short stories that often reflected the dominant literary trends of the day. Up to that point.
the primary focus of most stories had been on the plot. Nathaniel Hawthorne was one of the most important early writers in the shaping of the modern short story. His pieces probed character and the moral significance of events, leaving their physical reality ambiguous.
In “Young Goodman Brown” (1846), for example, the dark meetings in the woods of the Salem townspeople are less important than the spiritual changes in Brown himself. In his 1842 review of Hawthorne’s Twice-Told Tales (1837), Edgar Allan Poe became the first writer to define the short story as the attempt to achieve a single, focused effect.
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Poe demonstrated his artistic theory in “The Cask of Amontillado” (846), manipulating the setting, character, and dialogue to lead the reader inexorably toward the emotional state most appropriate for the “perfect” murder. During the 19th century, a variety of conflicting visions of life emerge that affected the way short-story writers viewed human experience.
Enroute to the glorious presence of the short story the following authors and their contributions are written in golden words: Heinrich von Kleist ( “The Earthquake in Chile,” 1810) E. T. A. Hoffmann (“The Cremona Violin,” 1818) in Germany; Honore de Balzac (“A Passion in the Desert,” 1830) in France.
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Hawthorne (“The Minister’s Black Veil, “1836) Nikolay Gogol (“The Nose,” 1836), Edgar Allan Poe (“The Fall of the House of Usher” (1839), and the detective story “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” (1841) Ivan Turgenev (“Byezhin Meadow,” 1852), Sarah Orne Jewett (“The White Heron,” 1886).
Guy de Maupassant (The Two Brothers, a study of jealousy and suspicion, 1890) Kate Chopin (“The Story of an Hour,” 1894), Anton Chekhov in Russia “The Darling,” (1899) The Cherry Orchard 1904, The Seagull (1896), Uncle Vanya (1899), and The Three Sisters (1901). James Joyce (“A Little Cloud,” 1914) Franz Kafka
“The Metamorphosis” 1915 Katherine Mansfield (“Miss Brill,” 1920) Irwin Shaw (“The Girls in Their Summer Dresses,” 1939), J. D. Salinger (,’ Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut,” 1948), Gabriel Garcia Marquez (One Hundred Years of Solitude, 1967) Anne Beattie (“A Vintage. Thunderbird,” 1978), Tobias Wolff (“The Rich Brother,” 1985), Alice Munro (“Meneseteung,” 1989), Lorrie Moore (“You’re Ugly, Too,” 1990).
Varieties – Among the ways of looking at the subjects, themes, and art of the Short Story is to review the astonishing range and varieties of types of stories. These include tales, fantasies, humor and satire, character studies, a confession. biography, history, education, religion. and local color types etc.
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Here are a few examples:
Adventure – In this type of story, some central character usually goes through unusual and dangerous adventures often in search of hidden wealth or achievement.
For example, Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Adventure of The Empty House Horror These stories may be about monsters, supernatural powers, places, or buildings (especially castles) where strange and frightening happenings occur.
For example The Hungry Stone by Rabindranath Tegore. Crime or Detection- The detective Story is about murder or theft. Early on this story, a crime is committed and the rest of the book is concerned with solving the mystery of the crime. These types of plots are popular with readers.
For example The Adventure of the Priory School by Arthur Conan Doyle. Humorous – In these types of stories humor plays a major role. Their main objective is to surprise, delight, and entertain people. Some of the more famous humorous tall tales and animal fables are – Mark Twain (“The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County,” 1865) and Joel Chandler Haris (” The Wonderful Tar-Baby Story,” 1894).
Mary McCarthy (“The man in the Brooks Brothers Shirt,” 1941) .etc. Education Story- The education story is set in academia or is concerned with the education of the main character. For example: “OF This Time, of That Place” (1944) by Lionel Trilling.
Character-based: Some short stories are character studies.
For example: “The Gentleman from > San Francisco” (1921) by Russian writer Ivan Bunin. Science Fiction – It is a product of the great scientific and technological advances that have been made in modern times. Science fiction may deal to travel to other places, planets or solar systems, with imagined wars and empires.
For example: Fear No More by George Anthony. Conclusion: We believe that the short story is one of the most exciting and important literary forms, that are mounting the widest possible readership.
Write a short note on Modern Short Story
Presently, in the din and bustle of daily life fewer and fewer people, these days have the leisure of reading füll paged novels or epics. Rather they resort to short stories.
Now a day and with e-book publication they find it worth reading while on travel or so. We thus will proceed further into healthy matures of short stories in the near future. Modern short story